عنوان مقاله [English]
In this paper, we first discuss the main questions in evolutionary accounts of religion. Then we offer the main answers to these questions. The hypothesis of religion as a by-product, will be briefly introduced and then Richard Sosi’s criticism of this hypothesis will be explained step by step. In order to criticize the hypothesis of religion as by-product and to provide a proper basis for his criticism, Richard Sosi starts with the definition of religion and regards it as a system. He believes that a religious system is mixed of some primary elements, including various cognitive and behavioral processes. Cognitive assessments determine only one aspect of religion, while religion is a comprehensive system whose overall performance must be examined. Even if the cognitive assessments are precise and can show that metaphysical beliefs are the by-products of some brain functions, this can’t determine whether a religious system is a factor that leads to adaptation. Richard Sosi considers the concept of "by-product" and, through a scientific analysis, shows that religion can be seen as a secondary adaptation or exaptation, not as a by-product.