عنوان مقاله [English]
Doubtless, any topic of humanities had been affected by Darwinian evolutionary theory in past century. Since evolution by means of natural selection founded on a base of a political right-wing economic theory, there were some social materialists whom looked for a middle way between both evolutionary and left sides theories. Their hopes and efforts probably increased due to recognition of role of cooperation in resent new Darwinian evolutionary approaches like multi-level selection theory. Singer’s book, A Darwinian Left, could consider as such efforts. Although, his effort in five short chapters is for providing an intermediate compatible explanation of the principles of evolution and leftism ideas but it looks that it is difficult to accept his explanations even by redact some essential concept in left side because not only still metaphysical priority of competition against cooperation are considered in any recent evolution by means of natural selection theories but also political right-wing and any evolutionary theory by priority of competition are conceptually both sides of a coin.