نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشآموخته دکتری فلسفه علم، دانشکده حقوق، الهیات و علوم سیاسی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران
2 استادیار گروه فلسفه، دانشکده حقوق، الهیات و علوم سیاسی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران
3 استادیار گروه زیستشناسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
The understanding of diversity and relation between biological individuals are the first issue of environments observations. This leads to offer evolutionary theories for explaining those facts since ancient till now. The cooperation between individuals with their environments was the basic idea of explanations in the history before Darwinian approaches. But Darwin offered his idea on base of a political economic theory which emphasis on competition between agents in economical activities. So the competition between biological entities is the foundation of Darwinian idea and any cooperation between entities in his approach explain away by consideration a competition between next level entities. On the other hand, there was not a well form and sound heredity theory in his time too. That’s why the Darwinian evolutionary theory faced some problems for explanation of some biological facts as same as others. Both of the cooperation and competition approaches alone could not explain the biological facts completely and coherently. It looks that while the basic relation between any biological individuals are cooperation with their environments, there are some race between almost same individuals for cooperation with their environments too.