نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
عنوان مقاله [English]
Essentialism like many philosophical subjects is rooted in the ideas of
Greek philosophers. This theory is related to the stability, motion and
change. In fact, a reasonable explanation of the motion and change was
interest of philosophers. Aristotle's theory is in this field. This theory
that concerns to laws of nature was the most notable philosophical
achievements and metaphysical foundation for the science of that time.
Aristotle was able to study species of plants and animals as a natural
kind because of variety and apparent difference between them. In his
view, any natural kind acts in goal-oriented. From this perspective,
Aristotle’s essentialism has been criticism, so was not a serious activity
on this topic till 20 century. Brian Ellis is formulated his scientific
essentialism with offers to natural kinds and dispositional properties.
He offers a variety of criteria for natural kind but he does not accept
biological kind because it does not satisfy some of the criteria. He
claims that his scientific essentialism is realistic. The natural kinds of
this theory are in transition and interact to each other. What appears
depends on a variety of roles of natural kinds that participating in the
process. The paper presents two ideas of Aristotle and Ellis'
essentialism and pays to new essentialism functionality. This study
presents why Ellis does not accept natural kind in biology even genetic
structure and unlike the traditional view, according to close relationship
between the definition and explanation, there is no such connection in