عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Monasticism is regarded as the most essential principle of attaining
Nirvāna, so much so that it may be claimed that according to the
Buddha, attainment of Nirvāna is impossible without renunciation
of the common worldly life and exercising ascetic practices.
« Samgha » is the concrete expression of this cocept, which was
formed during Buddha’s lifetime. It was designed to provide a
context for applying monastic discpline, as well as teaching and
transmitting Dharma by constituting a unified and homogenous
On the importance of this community it suffices to say that from the
doctrinal point of view samgha is one of the three jewels or three
refuges alongside the other two, i. e. Buddha and Dharma. It is also
seen as the guardian of these two principles. From the sociological
point of view samgha, like any other sociological doctrinal
institution, in spite of having common elements and functions in
personal and communal spheres in various lands, it gradually
transformed into a distinctive form in each society.
Introducing the cods and disciplines of samgha and the related
books, alongside the analysis of common distinguishing characters
and functions of samgha, constitute major themes of this article.